Silos are potentially hazardous: deaths may occur in the process of filling and maintaining them, and several safety precautions are necessary. There is a risk of injury by machinery or from falls. When a silo is filled, fine dust particles in the air can become explosive because of their large aggregate surface area.
Fermentation presents respiratory hazards. The ensiling process produces “silo gas” during the early stages of the fermentation process. Silage gas contains nitric oxide (NO), which will react with oxygen (O2) in the air to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which is toxic. Lack of oxygen inside the silo can cause asphyxiation.
Molds that grow when air reaches cured silage can cause organic dust toxic syndrome.
Collapsing silage from large bunker silos has caused deaths.
Silage itself poses no special danger.